Malwares – An Introduction & A Brief Guide To Safety Precautions
A big problem that majority of computer users face these days is “Cyber Attack“. They tend to corrupt user data or steal it. But how does this happen without actually letting the user know about it ? Well, this is what a typical ‘Black Hat Hacker’ does. After going through this article, the reader would be aware of some of the techniques used by them to target users and also would be aware of what precautions should be taken to avoid this to happen.Let’s start off first with the introduction of such harmful stuff. These all come under a common name ‘Malware’ which stands for ‘Malicious Software’ and holds a number of different elements like Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, Ransomwares, Spyware, Adwares and many others.
Viruses are the programs that are designed to reproduce themselves and are generally involved in reproducing themselves. They are usually spread while sharing some software or any media file. (To know how they do this, have a look at Binders)
Worms are somewhat similar to viruses in the sense of replication. The only key difference is that they are capable of reproducing by themselves without the help of the user andthey also do not need any host program to function. They could easily hide themselves under a file and find their way to spread across networks.
Spyware, a program that spies on your system, steals the data and sends them to the third party which has sent it to spy.Generally, they target sensitive pieces of information like bank details like credit card numbers and so.It also keeps trackof target’s internet activities so as to affect it with Adware. Once a system is infected, it is very difficult to detect Spywares as most of the antiviruses don’t detect them and they also slowdown the system drastically.
Adwares are those programs that are least dangerous to a system. They tend to display some advertisements on the display very often and when the user clicks on it, the hackers get paid for each click.They can be bundled with the legitimate software or any files that we download from the internet. They are somewhat annoying but at the same time are the most lucrative for hackers.
Trojan gets it name from ‘The Trojan Horse’ in Greek mythology owing to its quality of pretending of being innocent and harmless so as to get accepted by the target, concealing a malicious or harmful payload. The payload may take effect immediately and here they typically appear as regular software but create a backdoor so that hackers can remotely control the device. They are also known as droppers which are used to carry different viruses and worms to the victim.Unlike viruses, they are not capable of replicating.
Ransonwares are the ones that threaten the user. It could go on asking for a payment from the user or they’ll lock down the system or will wipe out the data.At first, they get into with the help of some trojans and then get administrative rights and then warns the user after having acquired access to important data.
Keyloggers are softwares used to surreptitiously capture details of each and every key pressed as well as the clicks of the mouse. They keep track of it along with the time when did so, makes a log file and relays all the information to the source of keylogging program. Well, these are also used by parents to have a check on their children.
Malware intent to damage the user data by indulging in various functions including stealing, encrypting or deleting sensitive user data making changes in core files or taking over the administrative charges of the system. They could be in any form either as an executable code, scripts or other infectious software. All they need is a medium to get into the target system and nowadays, due to the increased usage of internet, it has become quite easy for hackers to penetrate into the target system. So protection from them is very important for users. Common people are more easily affected since they are not aware of such technical stuff.
Here are some measures that could be adapted so as to avoid risks of becoming a target for hackers:
1. Keep your operating system up-to-date. Update it regularly and if possible upgrade it.
2. Check your emails carefully
3. Use firewalls, anti-malware, anti-virus and anti-exploit technology and make sure you update their definitions regularly. Also run a regular check to your PC.
4. Be careful while using the internet. Make sure you are in a secure connection.(To know whether you are in a secure connection look for a padlock symbol on before website’s name)
5. Make sure you log out of the website when finished with it.
6. While making transactions, make sure you are in a secure connection. It must be HTTPS(secured hypertext markup language) and not simple HTTP(hypertext markup language).
7. Always be active while using the internet and be aware of where you surf and always think before you click anywhere.
8. Remove extra programs that you don’t use as they may contain some adware as per their licence terms.
9. Turn off features like auto-run, auto-login etc.
Also go through our other guide on Malware to know more…
Feel free to disturb me for queries, if any.
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